In India, the child sex ratio (0-6 age group) which was 945 in 1991, decreased to 927 girls for every 1000 boys in 2001.
The 0-6 sex ratio was 976 in 1961, it declined to 964 in 1971, 962 in 1981 and 945 in 1991 and 927 in 2001.
In Punjab, the child sex ratio declined from 875 to 793 (a decrease of 82 points), in Haryana from 879 to 820 (59 points) in Himachal Pradesh from 951 to 897 (54 points), in Gujarat from 928 to 878 (50 points), in Chandigarh from 899 to 845 (54 points) and in Delhi from 915 to 865 (50 points).
This sharp decline in the states must be the consequence of female foeticide on a massive scale if not female infanticide and higher female child mortality rates.
The punishment for female foeticide and infanticide for the parties involved _________ and related laws _________.
Technical words not required. Gist will do.
In 1976, the Centre banned sex-determination tests in government facilities but not in the private ones
In 1988, Maharashtra Government enacted the Regulation of the Use of Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act. Following this, the governments of Punjab, Gujarat and Haryana passed similar laws.
In 1994, the Centre passed the Prenatal Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act covering the entire country.
On January 1, 1996, the law came into operation. Under the Act, pre-natal diagnostic scans are permitted solely to detect genetic abnormalities. The Act forbids sex determination tests. It also prohibits any advertisements relating to Pre-natal determination of sex and prescribes punishments for its contravention. The person who contravenes the provisions of this Act is punishable with imprisonment upto five years and fine upto Rs.50,000
In 2001, a PIL was filed with the Supreme Court. The Court directed the State Governments to enforce the PNDT Act and file an affidavit indicating the status of action taken under the Act. It also directed nine companies to provide details of ultrasound machines (11,200) sold to clinics in the last five years. It asked medical associations such as the Indian Medical Association to furnish details of the members using the machines.
Only in 2002, eight years after the PNDT Act was passed, that the Medical Council of India (MCI) -- authorised under Section 23 (2) of the Act to take action against any erring medical practitioner -- recognised undertaking sex-determination tests 'with the intent to terminate the life of a female foetus' as professional misconduct. According to the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, published in the Gazette of India on April 6, 2002, sex-determination without 'proper indication' can lead to de-registration and criminal prosecution.
The MCI code of conduct, while recognising sex-determination as a punishable offence, allows a huge leeway, since it is only sex-determination 'with the intent to terminate the life of a female foetus' (who will question the doctor's intention?) and sex-determination 'without proper' indication that is unacceptable. There is already enough evidence to show that doctors are getting around these regulations, as well as the letter of the law prohibiting the communication of the sex of the foetus.
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act 2003
Bringing into the ambit of the Act emerging techniques for pre-conception sex-selection, such as sperm separation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, increasing the fine and additional provisions for the suspension and cancellation of the registration of violators, the law targets the medical profession: the so-called 'supply' side of the practice of sex-selection. Manufacturers of ultrasound equipment are now required to sell their products only to registered clinics, and all ultrasonographers now have to maintain records of all tests conducted by them.
Female Infanticide is treated as homicide under IPC.
To my knowledge,none in the medical community have been convicted for assisting in female foeticide. Not able to access data at the moment on those in non-medical community convicted under the Act.There have many cases of people being convicted for female infanticide (the punishment term has varied no fixed period of imprisonment).
Since the topic is big, will write a seperate post on it.
The answer was partly given by Wgaf,Busybee,Idiot,Quetzal,max,Mausmi.